(PDF) Abortion and Women's Rights in the USA | Marianna Karakoulaki - ecrasmuss.ga

 

abortion scholarly articles

ABORTION, ETHICS, AND THE COMMON GOOD. Under the framework of Roe, the legal questions of abortion in the. United States are usually framed by two main issues: (1) the privacy right of. the individual woman29 to bodily and reproductive autonomy and (2) the. As far as the abortion laws are concerned, the new mandate can have a serious impact on them and on women’s lives. Until now 8 states restrict coverage of abortion in private insurance plans, most often limiting coverage only to when the woman’s life would be . Jun 01,  · The article accounts for the significant overlap between the implicated rights and highlights gaps in protection for women's right to abortion. Finally, the article touches upon criminalisation of women who undergo illegal abortions as an independent human rights violation and recent legal successes expanding the right to abortion at the regional and national ecrasmuss.ga by:


Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran


Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study.

Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences.

Tehran hospitals were the site of study. The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects, abortion scholarly articles. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents.

Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health. Abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in, or caused by its death.

This can occur spontaneously as a miscarriage, or be artificially induced through chemical, surgical or other means 1abortion scholarly articles, 2. Commonly, abortion refers to a procedure induced at any point during pregnancy.

Medically, it is defined as a miscarriage or induced termination of pregnancy before twenty weeks of gestation, whenever the fetus is considered to be nonviable 3, abortion scholarly articles. Abortion is classified as either spontaneous or induced. Spontaneous abortion which is also called miscarriage mainly occurs due to accidental trauma or natural causes, such as structural and numerical chromosome aberration, chronic diseases coincident with pregnancy, and environmental factors.

Induced abortions are further subcategorized into two categories of therapeutic and elective abortions. The earliest records of recognized abortifacients agents abortion scholarly articles cause the premature termination of pregnancy which are presumed to have been written more than years ago are found in ancient Chinese texts. In ancient Greece also, philosophers had accepted abortion as a permissible act to put an end to an unwanted pregnancy or to control population.

Reflecting a variety of abortion scholarly articles, social, and political forces, laws and regulations permitting or restricting abortion have been enacted over the centuries 5. Abortion abortion scholarly articles known as a main cause of maternal mortality, life threatening complications such as hemorrhage, fever, and infection on one hand, and psychological disorders such as regret, abortion scholarly articles, guilt, smoking, alcoholism, self-destructive behaviors, and even suicide on the other 6abortion scholarly articles, 78.

There are too many factors attributed to the abortion which cover socio-economic, emotional, abortion scholarly articles, and psychological aspects of human beings' life, particularly those women as direct beds of abortion practices. However, the conclusion of studies do not indicate a linear relation between abortion and its consequences, rather, they show great variations in terms of socio-economic and demographic variables of abortion in care seeking women, and whether their abortion was performed legally or illegally 9.

However, the psychological consequences of abortion was also affected by the quality of family life, number of children, planned or unplanned pregnancy, beliefs and genetics 10 Abortion as an aspect of reproductive behavior is defined and characterized by different bio psycho-social determinants. Despite the fact that abortion has been practiced over the world throughout the history, there are still controversies about abortion in terms of its legitimacy and consequences Since abortion is a legally and religiously prohibited phenomenon in Iran, there is no reliable data on the prevalence of abortion in this country.

However, a study conducted in Teheran before the Islamic revolution, has found out that out of Another study about abortion among households of a central neighborhood of Teheran from anthropological perspective revealed abortion scholarly articles abortion was as a prevailed behavior among women in spite of their beliefs and intentions Physiological effects of abortion are in fact rarely studied in Iran, particularly in the last three decades.

Pros and Cons of abortion abortion scholarly articles positive and negative emotional and psychological consequences to abortion. Pros of abortion rely on studies which indicate that emotional responses to legally induced abortion are largely positive. They also point out that emotional problems resulting from abortion are rare and less frequent than those following childbirth They emphasize that the most studies in the last two decades have abortion scholarly articles abortion to be a relatively benign procedure in terms of emotional effect, except when pre-abortion emotional problems exist or when a wanted pregnancy is terminated 16 In fact in many occasions, abortion is seen as a positive coping mechanism which provides relief as emotional reaction for most women particularly when it is practiced during first-trimester of pregnancy, abortion scholarly articles.

On the other hand, opponents of abortion scholarly articles, emphasize on negative emotional-psychological consequences of the abortion. From their point of view, abortion may cause psychological problems such as smoking, drug abuse, eating disorder, abortion scholarly articles, depression, attempted suicide, guilt, abortion scholarly articles, regret, nightmare and decreased self-esteem In many cases, abortion scholarly articles, the request for termination of an unplanned pregnancy is an evidence of a lack of knowledge of contraception, failure to use an effective method or failure of the methods.

A good family planning seeks to reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies and evidence suggests that abortion rates are lowest in those countries with a comprehensive system of sex education and contraceptive services 9.

However, abortion either as a miscarriage or as a criminal termination of a fetus life produces physical, social, and psychological consequences which may last for a long period of time, and affect personal, family, and social life of individuals.

The aim of this study was to identify psychological consequences of abortion among women who were seeking for abortion or post abortion care in Tehran's hospitals.

The present study is a descriptive and cross-sectional one, and aims to clarify the psychological consequences of abortion in the study population. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics of women who experienced abortion had been explored and studied. The socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the husbands of the sample were also taken into account in order to have a broader view of men's roles in family structure, decision making, and performance.

General and Maternity hospitals, from different sectors public and privatein Tehran were determined as sites of data collection. Shariati and Valie-asr as university hospitals, Mirza Koochak khan, Rooeentan Arash, and Hedayat as Maternity complexes, Baharloo, abortion scholarly articles, Milad and Pasteurno as general hospitals were selected for this purpose. Coordination with administrators and managers as well as nursing departments of these hospitals was made, and interviewers started to complete the questionnaire with eligible respondents.

On the whole, questionnaires have been completed. Because of several, mainly administrative, barriers to access the abortionees, an attempt has been made to select cooperating hospitals. As a bias prevention strategy, different hospitals with different affiliations located in different parts of Tehran were selected for the study, abortion scholarly articles. Women of age who referred to Tehran's hospitals, public and privateabortion scholarly articles, and had experienced abortion at least once in their reproductive life have been considered as the study population.

There were women with above mentioned characteristics that constituted the study population. Out of the whole respondentsthere were 17 who did not appropriately respond to the questionnaires. Table 1 demonstrates the distribution of the respondents in different hospitals. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire which consisted of two parts. The first part included 32 questions about socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their spouses as well.

This part also abortion scholarly articles a number of questions which meet some characteristics of original family and abortion related behavior of the respondents. The second part of the questionnaire included 21 questions prepared in Lickert scale format on physical, psychological, and social consequences of abortion; of which, 10 belonged to psychological consequences attributed to abortion. The questionnaire was developed based on a vast global literature review, and consulting experts on women's health, and also on sociology and psychology disciplines.

The questionnaire was piloted and then validated in terms of its content. The respondents were asked to mark the most relevant option too much, sizeable, abortion scholarly articles, few, much less, nothing as determined for consequences. The independent variables included in the study were education, occupation, and the age of spouses, fields of study, age at first marriage, age at first abortion, marital status, temporary marriage, family size, and ideal family size, abortion scholarly articles, frequency of abortions experienced, reasons for abortion, and psychological consequences of abortion experienced by the respondents.

Socio-economic and demographic characteristics: According to the respondents, a large proportion of them In other words, they were in their healthy reproductive years of life. Approximately, one- third of the respondents had experienced abortion out of well-known healthy years of pregnancy years6. Respondents in the age group of were the largest group of the study population A gap of age was observed between the respondents and their husbands.

Unlike the respondents, none of their husbands were placed in the age group of under 20, while most of them Table 2 demonstrates age distribution of the respondents and their abortion scholarly articles counterparts. As expected, the majority of the respondents were married and living with their husbands The respondents and their abortion scholarly articles were mainly Tehran born citizens abortion scholarly articles There was not a large gap between spouses in terms of their tertiary educational attainments.

Early marriage seems to be a dominant position among the respondents. The abortion scholarly articles revealed that Among the latter, only 1. Respondents with no children constitute the largest proportion of the study population The respondents considered two children with opposite sex as an ideal sex composition for a family. The number of abortions has been increased parallel to the decrease of age at first marriage among the respondents Table 3.

Hospitals were the main sites for abortion related services, and However, close to one-forth of the study population Only 1. This could be an alarming indication of unsafe abortion with frequent undesirable consequences Table 4. Fetus and mother's health with Sex preference stayed on the forth step as a reason for abortion 7. Poverty, family size, and incompatibility of the spouses, were not considered as important as sex preference alone. Smoking, drug abuse, eating disorder, depression, attempted suicide, guilt, regret, nightmare, decreased self-esteem, and worry about not being able to conceive again were the questions asked from the respondents as the psychological consequences of abortion.

At least one-third of the respondents have experienced one of the above mentioned psychological side effects except suicide, drug abuse and smoking. Age at marriage is known as a strong demographic variable with significant implications on health of mothers and their children. Abortion, as a birth preventive strategy may develop correlation with age at marriage. Findings of the present study demonstrated that abortions were mostly practiced among the youngest age groups. Although there is a legal permission for abortion for specific reasons, the distribution of consultants for abortion and post abortion care indicate that abortion seems to be still a hidden phenomenon practiced out of family and the family of origin supervision.

Nearly one-quarter of the respondents conducted abortion at home Table 3, abortion scholarly articles. This could be an alarming indication of unsafe abortion. Spontaneous abortion has been practiced by Fetus and mother health with The sex preference stayed on the forth step as a reason for abortion 7.

Whatever the reason and frequency of abortion, the findings have indicated that there was no sizeable knowledge about the consequences of abortion among all age groups of respondents. Findings revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced one of the psychological consequences of abortion except suicide, drug abuse and smokingand they are demonstrated in Table 4.

The first is that the respondents were unhappy and unsatisfied with abortion, though they did not seek intended and somehow criminal abortion.

 

Arguing Against Abortion | Anna Sutherland | First Things

 

abortion scholarly articles

 

May 08,  · Arguing Against Abortion. A recent inquiry from a college instructor in search of philosophical arguments on the morality of abortion inspired us to compile the below list of resources, which, though far from comprehensive, may be of use to pro-lifers. I’ve sorted the list by type of resource. ” Embryology: Inconvenient Facts ” by William L. Saunders, ecrasmuss.ga: Anna Sutherland. Jun 01,  · The article accounts for the significant overlap between the implicated rights and highlights gaps in protection for women's right to abortion. Finally, the article touches upon criminalisation of women who undergo illegal abortions as an independent human rights violation and recent legal successes expanding the right to abortion at the regional and national ecrasmuss.ga by: Background Arguments that abortion causes women emotional harm are used to regulate abortion, particularly later procedures, in the United States. However, existing research is inconclusive. We examined women’s emotions and reports of whether the abortion decision was the right one for them over the three years after having an induced ecrasmuss.ga by: